Electrically loaded particles
are coming upon the upper layer
of the earth's atmosphere
and are gilding its air molecules.
They follow the lines of force
of the geomagnetic field
and will be mainly directed to
the North and South pole.
In years with an increased sun
activity the lights can be observed
even in the southern countries.
Scientists ask themselves today:
If electrodes are able to move
through parallel universes
why are we not able to?
"Fantasy is more important than knowledge
because knowledge is limited." - Einstein
The High Energy Stereoscopic
System II telescope in Namibia
is designed to detect gamma rays
- photons with over 100 billion
times the energy of visible light.
"Spirit is immaterial as light.
Spirit is everywhere, it comes through
everything, carries everything,
connects invisibly the visible, as light
that is everywhere between
the things but has no place.
Light knows no silence, is permanently in
motion, as the spirit. If we see it on
the eye it's already gone. Light is
an information medium, as the spirit
- points of contact of two worlds."
Biophysicist Dieter Broers:
"If our perception changes,
our whole world view
inevitably get off the rails.
Therefore we should consider
everything, what now follows,
with the awareness of a child
- open-minded and impartial.
Mathematicians can turn into philosophers,
and science can merge with religion.
Then we overcome the barrier
of perception and break through
the limits of space and time."
"There are more things
between Heaven and Earth
than your book learning
can dream of."
- Goethe, William Shakespeare
and Christopher Marlowe
a 2002 report exploring the potential
for synergy among nano-, bio-,
informational and cognitive technologies
(NBIC) for enhancing human performance
"Science without religion is lame.
Religion without science is blind."
- Albert Einstein, physicist
"Having a good imagination
doesn't mean inventing
something; it means
caring about things.“
- Thomas Mann, author
Synopsis of cosmology, astrophysics, metaphysics, cosmobiology & phenomenology
קוסמוס კოსმოსი コスモス 코스모스 ब्रह्माण्ड 宇宙 宇宙 宇宙
فضاء كوني ܬܒܝܠ كون گەردوون گیتی אוניווערס બ્રહ્માંડ ब्रह्माण्ड Yî-chhiu
Ғарышнама Космос Cosmos Kosmos
"The purpose of natural science is not just to enhance experience
but to put this experience into order.“ - Niels Bohr, physicist
When they succeeded in cultivating the flame the first lamps were created.
The aim of all sciences is to realize basic patterns and regularities in nature.
The first great achievement was succeeded in astronomy.
Our ancestors had recognized that heavenly bodies follow on determined paths
and that the seasons enable to create a calendar.
Up to a certain degree they were able to conclude legality from it.
It took very long until one has succeeded similar scientific achievements
beyond skywatching because the orbits of the stars and planets
are far more regular than anything else what can be observed in nature.
In attempt to understand how we came into being science have turned after
the study of planetary orbits to basic patterns of our nature.
The crucial question here was:
Is there a common denominator in all developments?
One had probably always the assumption that we are connected with
the worlds around us in any mysterious way.
And although the world is so complex there was hope that
one would come upon a common element
as soon as the foundation-stones of life were found.
Isaac Newton's monumental work "Principia"
about the cohesion of the universe through gravity was published in 1687.
The new world view was summarized here.
From Hypatia's "Conic circles" and
Su Song's "astronomical computer of the antiquity" in 1092,
that calculated exactly the planetary circulation around the sun,
and Tycho de Brahe's observations in 1572
over Johannes Kepler's Ellipse-shaped orbits in 1604,
who discovered the laws of planetary motion,
to Galileo Galilei's discoveries in 1623.
Newton layed the foundations for classic mechanics and
described universal laws of motion which explain the movements of the planets.
In religion an organized universe demonstrated an existence of an allmighty God.
Our history of science is formed by powerful forces and views.
From the obsession of the Greeks with divine circles,
from the courts of the renaissance, from the reformation and especially
from the mating of two abilities:
the making of new instruments and the accumulation of new theories.
Albert Einstein finally stated that great masses
can bend space through gravity.
The combination of time, space, and mathematics enabled him
to define the theoretical spacetime-continuum which later has been
practically proven with the most expensive experiment of all time.
"If at first, the idea is not absurd, then there is no hope for it."
Asymmetry between matter and anti-matter
The earlier universe has been composed of matter and anti-matter or dark matter.
Every particle has one anti-particle. Anti-matter is just like matter -
a twin. The difference is that it has a different load.
Conventional matter consists of atoms that on the other hand consist
of subatomic particles like negative electrons and positive protons.
Anti-matter is the opposite of this particle.
They have the same mass but the conflicting electric load.
Protons are positively loaded particles, they are the Nucleus of this atom.
The anti-proton is a negatively loaded proton with the same mass.
In our universe opposites attract,
and the particles and anti-particles do just as well.
One could think, it's a cosmic connection. But every time when matter
contacts anti-matter the same happens, they destroy eachother.
The energy emerges in form of gamma rays - the photons.
Why the whole universe consists only of anti-matter is a great riddle.
We are the result of a gigantic energy tremor which occured
with the collision of matter and anti-matter.
Most of the energy in our universe springs from another invisible phenomenon,
the dark energy. It has nothing to do with dark matter.
Dark just means that we don't know anything about it.
The whole cosmos is full of dark energy.
The dark energy is a substance which doesn't give off light.
We don't see them but they accelerate the expansion of the universe.
It's a sort of anti-gravity. Usual matter and energy slows down the speed
with what the bodies move from each other.
Because every body practises gravity on each other, they attract.
Dark energy seems to cause the opposite.
Things can exist in two different places at the same time.
If we don't look at it, the quality of the electron changes.
New Elements of Life
Using publicly available data from NASA's Kepler space telescope,
astronomers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) have found that
six percent of red dwarf stars have habitable, Earth-sized planets.
Since red dwarfs are the most common stars in our galaxy, the closest Earth-like planet
could be just 13 light-years away.
"We thought we would have to search vast distances to find an Earth-like planet.
Now we realize another Earth is probably in our own backyard, waiting to be spotted,"
said Harvard astronomer and lead author Courtney Dressing. Source:cfa.harvard.edu
The Chicken came first, not the egg!
British researchers say the chicken must have come first
as the formation of eggs is only possible thanks to
a protein found in the chicken’s ovaries.
The gigantic storms on Jupiter and Saturn prove that
the core energy of the planets clearly has enough heat to make life possible.
The New Element
New Life form lives on Arsenic. The lab-altered, poison-eating bacteria
widens the scope for finding life on other worlds.
Strange bacteria living deep in a California lake can survive on arsenic and
can even grow by incorporating the element into its DNA and cell membranes.
"It has solved the challenge of being alive in a very different way than we knew of,"
said lead researcher Felisa Wolfe-Simon,
a biochemist with the U.S. Geological Survey.
GFAJ-1 is a bacterium scooped up from the salty sediments of Mono Lake
that seems to have pulled off a major scrambling
of its building blocks for life. The organisms learned to live with arsenic
instead of phosphorus - something scientists didn't think possible.
The finding not only presents the possibility that alternative life forms can exist,
or once existed, on Earth.
It opens the floodgates for scientists developing techniques to identify alien life,
if it exists. And it raises the prospect of alternative methods
for wastewater treatment and bio-energy production.
"The implications are profound, regardless.
The building blocks of life are more flexible than we had previously thought,"
astrobiologist Ariel Anbar, with Arizona State University.
Data from a major U.S. atom smasher have revealed a new elementary particle,
or even a new force of nature like gravity or magnetism, a lab has told AFP.
The findings could offer clues to the persistent riddle
of mass and how objects obtain it
- one of the most sought-after questions in all of physics.
The results are part of an ongoing experiment - now in its 25th year
- with proton and anti-proton collisions to understand the workings of the universe.
Physicists from the Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory,
which operates the 'Tevatron' atom-smasher, have been studying the bump in data
for more than a year. The findings have caused a stir within the physics community.
'There could be some new force beyond the force that we know,'
said Giovanni Punzi, a physicist with the international research team
that is analysing the data at the lab.
'If it is confirmed, it could point to a whole new world of interactions,' he told AFP.
Researchers agree the findings are not the 'God Particle' or the 'Higgs-boson',
a hypothetical elementary particle which has long eluded physicists
who believe it could explain why objects have mass.
'The Higgs-boson is a piece that goes into
the puzzle that we already have,' said Punzi.
'Whereas this is something that goes a little bit beyond that
- a new interaction, a new force'.
Nigel Lockyer, director of Canada's national laboratory for particle
and nuclear physics, TRIUMF, described the results as 'tantalizing'.
'On the one hand, there is clear evidence for something unexplained,
and on the other, there is a long list of alternative explanations
for what might be causing this subtle observation,' he said.
'My personal judgement is that this excitement is adding fuel to
the fire for the next generation of results and discoveries.'
In 2013 the chemical elements of universal life have been found on planet Mars.
The universal principle
Physicist Rolf Heuer from the CERN-research in Geneve talks on
international symposions with theologians and philosophers.
An honorable eye-level exchange between science and those who ask
questions about the meaning, the spirit, the origin.
Rolf Heuer: "With this symposion I also want to understand
how physics and religion can work together.
Physics and faith, the How and Why, are definitely not rival powers.
Religion is accepting physics and physics can even accept religion.
At the moment when they have fundamentalists and Wanna-be-Theoreticians,
then it's over. Then they don't go further.
They need people who are outward-looking and people who take their view
but also listen to other opinions. This is the art."
The Art to ask the right questions and
to maintain the limits of one's own discipline with answers.
Ready and open for questions from theologians and philosophers
about the principle of all things
- about the creator, about the spirit, about consciousness.
Scientists today think they've found a key building block of the universe.
CERN announces discovery of elementary particle in building universe.
Sub-atomic particle called "Higgs boson" according to physicist Peter Higgs.
Higgs boson is the final piece in understanding how the universe works.
The cosmos consists of 70% Dark energy.
The sun is, like man, composed of 70% hydrogen.
After the theory of relativity or the quantum theory
radiation is able to convert in matter and matter in radiation.
Matter can be still, therefore can have mass in peace, and radiation moves
with the speed of light. How come that a particle alters in a mass in peace
with the speed of light? That's the transition that is occuring every second
in the sun, a crossing from radiation to mass and mass to radiation.
The Unit of Light
Photon is the origin on sunlight and heat. Photon is an elementary particle of the sun,
the quantum of the electromagnetic interaction and the basic unit of light
and all other forms of electromagnetic radiation.
It is the force carrier for the electromagnetic force.
Photon-rays of the sun can influence our consciousness positively.
We all are the ash of long since past stars.
Everything what we see around us is created from exploded suns.
All is made of Stardust. We all are part of the sun. (Novalis) we learn much about human nature,
if we try to understand our cosmos at the same time.
Mankind is an aspect of effectiveness of a Great Whole
and brings himself to the integral consciousness.
So even from this perception there will be absolutely new social action
which, according to Biophysicist Dieter Broers, consists of pure delight.
What man should realize with the Eastern philosophy of the Great Whole
is what is not transitory.
Human identity is not the repetition of life to life but the eternal unchanging life energy in man himself.
All the crises on this planet are symptoms of a sickness.
Provided that the cause here for the original dilemma
won't be realized, same things will happen what we know from medicine,
that a pure palliative therapy have never lead to a lasting cure.
It was our egocentric, profit maximized attitude of mind that produced what we derive from.
This all will intensify, aslike the temporal perception will increase.
This means apparent time that is getting faster is also measurable fleeting time.
The Sun, the geomagnetic field, the cosmic rays are coming as a rule from outside.
But since things from quantum physics don't seperate In and Out anymore,
"A kinship between everything" (non-locality), we should realize that when the sun-rays
changes our terrestrial magnetic field and with it our psychic mood
and situation of consciousness sustainably, then those are the things,
that react externally to set internal processes of effectiveness in motion.
The interaction of geomagnetic fields is straight out connected with our neurochemical structures.
Our induced molecules of consciousness and feelings here will be
directly involved over the pineal gland.
Fact is that we are already completely under the influence of these
cosmic events and added to which we find a weakened magnetic field
and that we thus become more sensitive for cosmic influences.
So a man who is on the way with a mentally instable basic attitude
will feel negative effects, like fear or fury, considerably more severe as somebody who is in balance.
Lecturer Randy Hastings thinks:
The Photon belt is an intensive field of light rays which according to modern astronomy,
as well in the Maya tradition, comes from the center of our gravitation.
At the same time it intersects the Pleiades-system and our own solar system.
Every year we spend two more weeks in the Photon belt.
According to the statements of the Maya-calendar we exclusively are
in the Photon belt since 2011, and will stay there for the next 2,000 years.
The Maya knew that every few thousand years
we are moving in a cycle in and out the Photon belt.
It seems there has been cultural and climate earth changes as well,
perhaps stimulated or affected by entering
in and out of the Photon-belt in the past history of the earth.
The Central Sun has taken over the control
and influences everything directly on our planet.
As of now for many people it is a pleasant, harmonic energy
with the revaluation of their own aspects and own comprehension.
This activity is steered over morphogenetic fields.
Morphogenetic Fields & Connections
In developmental biology, a morphogenetic field is a group of cells
able to respond to discrete, localized biochemical signals leading to
the development of specific morphological structures or organs.
The spatial and temporal extent of the embryonic fields are dynamic,
and within the field is a collection of interacting cells out of which a particular organ is formed.
As a group, the cells within a given morphogenetic field are constrained
- i.e. cells in a limb field will become a limb tissue, those in a cardiac field will become heart tissue.
Importantly, however, the specific cellular programming
of individual cells in a field is flexible: an individual cell in a cardiac field can be redirected via cell-to-cell
signaling to replace specific damaged or missing cells.
Imaginal discs in insect larvae are examples of morphogenetic fields.
Scott Gilbert proposes that the morphogenetic field is a middle ground between genes and evolution.
That is, genes act upon fields, which then act upon the developing organism.
Jessica Bolker describes morphogenetic fields not merely incipient structures or organs,
but as dynamic entities with their own localized development processes,
which are central to the emerging field of evolutionary development.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, "beginning of the shape"),
is the biological process that causes anorganism to develop its shape.
It is one of three fundamental aspects of developmental biology
along with the control of cell growth and cellular differentiation.
The process controls the organized spatial distribution of cells during the embryonic development of an organism.
Morphogenesis can take place also in a mature organism,
in cell culture or inside tumor cell masses. Morphogenesis also describes
the development of unicellular life forms that do not have an embryonic stage
in their life cycle, or describes the evolution
of a body structure within a taxonomic group.
Morphogenetic responses may be induced in organisms by hormones,
by environmental chemicals ranging from substances produced by
other organisms to toxic chemicals or radionuclides released as pollutants,
and other plants, or by mechanical stresses induced by spatial patterning of the cells.
Evolution of development is a field of biology
that compares the developmental processes
of different organisms to determine the ancestral relationship between them,
and to discover how developmental processes evolved.
It addresses the origin and evolution of embryonic development;
how modifications of development and developmental processes
lead to the production of novel features, such as the evolution of feathers;
the role of developmental plasticity in evolution;
how ecology impacts in development and evolutionary change;
and the developmental basis of homoplasy and homology.
Although interest in the relationship between ontogeny and phylogeny
extends back to the 18th century, the contemporary field of evo-devo
has gained impetus from the discovery of genes regulating embryonic development inmodel organisms.
General hypotheses remain hard to test because organisms differ so much in shape and form.
Nevertheless, it now appears that just as evolution tends to create new genes
from parts of old genes (molecular economy),
evo-devo demonstrates that evolution alters developmental processes (genes and gene networks)
to create new and novel structures from the old gene networks
(such as bone structures of the jaw deviating to the ossicles of the middle ear)
or will conserve (molecular economy)
a similar program in a host of organisms such as eye development genes in molluscs, insects, and vertebrates.
Initially the major interest has been in the evidence of homology in the cellular and molecular mechanisms
that regulate body plan and organ development.
However more modern approaches include developmental changes associated with speciation.
Time & Space
Theories such as String theory and M-theory predict that physical space
in general has in fact 10 and 11 dimensions, respectively. The extra dimensions are spatial.
String Theory predicts the existence of more than the 3 space dimensions
and 1 time dimension we are all familiar with.
According to string theory, there are additional dimensions that we are
unfamiliar with because they are curled up into tiny complicated shapes that can only be seen on tiny scales.
If we could shrink to this tiny, Planck-sized scale we could see that
at every 3D point in space, we can also explore 6 additional dimensions.
This animation shows a Calabi-Yau surface which is a projection of
these higher dimensions into the more familiar dimensions we are aware of.
Imaging the Tenth Dimension is a blog written in a pretty accessible style
which, as a bonus, has a bit of musing about the 4D nature of spimes
in the post for 2 March (Hypercubes & Plato’s Cave).
We perceive only three spatial dimensions,
and no physical experiments have confirmed the reality of additional dimensions.
A possible explanation that has been suggested is that space acts as
if it were "curled up" in the extra dimensions on a subatomic scale,
possibly at the quark/string level of scale or below.
The extra dimensions are spatial. We perceive only three spatial dimensions,
and no physical experiments have confirmed the reality of additional dimensions.
A possible explanation that has been suggested is that space acts as
if it were "curled up" in the extra dimensions on a subatomic scale,
possibly at the quark/string level of scale or below.
String theory is a developing theory in particle physics
that attempts to reconcile quantum mechanics andgeneral relativity.
It is a candidate for the theory of everything (TOE),
a manner of describing the knownfundamental forces and matter in a mathematically complete system.
The theory has yet to make testable experimental predictions,
which a theory must do in order to be considered a part of science.
String theory mainly posits that the electrons and quarks within an atom
are not 0-dimensional objects, but rather 1-dimensional oscillating lines ("strings").
The earliest string model, the bosonic string, incorporated only bosons,
although this view developed to the superstring theory, which posits that a connection
(a "supersymmetry") exists between bosons and fermions.
String theories also require the existence of several extra, unobservable,
dimensions to the universe, in addition to the usual four spacetimedimensions.
The theory has its origins in the dual resonance model (1969).
Since that time, the term string theory has developed to incorporate any of
a group of related superstring theories. Five major string theories were formulated.
The main differences between each of them were the number of dimensions
in which the strings developed and their characteristics, however all appeared to be correct.
In the mid 1990s a unification of all previous superstring theories, called M-theory,
was proposed, which asserted that strings are really 1-dimensional slices
of a 2-dimensional membrane vibrating in 11-dimensional space.
As a result of the many properties and principles shared by these approaches
(such as the holographic principle), their mutual logical consistency,
and the fact that some easily include the standard model of particle physics,
some mathematical physicists (e.g. Witten, Maldacena and Susskind) believe that
string theory is a step towards the correct fundamental description of nature.
Nevertheless, other prominent physicists (e.g. Feynman and Glashow)
have criticized string theory for not providing any quantitative experimental predictions.
A temporal dimension is a dimension of time.
Time is often referred to as the "fourth dimension" for this reason,
but that is not to imply that it is a spatial dimension.
A temporal dimension is one way to measure physical change.
It is perceived differently from the three spatial dimensions in that
there is only one of it, and that we cannot move freely in time but subjectively move in one direction.
The equations used in physics to model reality do not treat time
in the same way that humans commonly perceive it.
The equations of classical mechanics are symmetric with respect to time,
and equations of quantum mechanics are typically symmetric
if both time and other quantities (such as charge and parity) are reversed.
In these models, the perception of time flowing in one direction
is an artifact of the laws of thermodynamics
(we perceive time as flowing in the direction of increasing entropy).
The best-known treatment of time as a dimension is
Poincaré and Einstein's special relativity (and extended to general relativity),
which treats perceived space and time as components of
a four-dimensional manifold, known as spacetime,
and in the special, flat case as Minkowski space.
In mathematics, the dimension of an object is an intrinsic property,
independent of the space in which the object may happen to be embedded.
For example: a point on the unit circle in the plane can be specified by
two Cartesian coordinates but one can make do with a single coordinate
(the polar coordinate angle), so the circle is 1-dimensional even though it exists in the 2-dimensional plane.
This intrinsic notion of dimension is one of the chief ways
in which the mathematical notion of dimension differs from its common usages.
These can be handy to know about. Quadrant = 2^3 + 55-6654
The dimension of Euclidean n-space E n is n. When trying to generalize to other types of spaces,
one is faced with the question “what makes E n n-dimensional?"
One answer is that to cover a fixed ball in E n by small balls of radius ε,
one needs on the order of ε−n such small balls. This observation leads to
the definition of the Minkowski dimension and its more sophisticated variant,
the Hausdorff dimension. But there are also other answers to that question.
For example, one may observe that the boundary of a ball in E n looks locally like E n − 1
and this leads to the notion of theinductive dimension.
While these notions agree on E n, they turn out to be different when one looks at more general spaces.
A tesseract is an example of a four-dimensional object.
Whereas outside of mathematics the use of the term "dimension" is as in:
"A tesseract has four dimensions," mathematicians usually express this as:
"The tesseract has dimension 4," or: "The dimension of the tesseract is 4."
Although the notion of higher dimensions goes back to René Descartes,
substantial development of a higher-dimensional geometry
only began in the 19th century, via the work of Arthur Cayley, William Rowan Hamilton,
Ludwig Schläfli and Bernhard Riemann. Riemann's 1854 Habilitationsschrift,
Schlafi's 1852 Theorie der vielfachen Kontinuität,
Hamilton's 1843 discovery of the quaternions and the construction of
the Cayley Algebra marked the beginning of higher-dimensional geometry.
The rest of this section examines some of the more important mathematical definitions of the dimensions.
Number of dimensions
An intriguing feature of string theory is that it involves the prediction of extra dimensions.
The number of dimensions is not fixed by any consistency criterion,
but flat spacetime solutions do exist in the so-called "critical dimension".
Cosmological solutions exist in a wider variety of dimensionalities,
and these different dimensions - more precisely different values of the "effective central charge",
a count of degrees of freedom which reduces to dimensionality
in weakly curved regimes - are related by dynamical transitions.
One such theory is the 11-dimensional M-theory, which requires spacetime to have eleven dimensions,
as opposed to the usual three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time.
The original string theories from the 1980s describe special cases of M-theory
where the eleventh dimension is a very small circle or a line,
and if these formulations are considered as fundamental,
then string theory requires ten dimensions.
But the theory also describes universes like ours,
with four observable spacetime dimensions, as well as universes with up to 10 flat space dimensions,
and also cases where the position in some of the dimensions is not described by a real number,
but by a completely different type of mathematical quantity.
So the notion of spacetime dimension is not fixed in string theory:
it is best thought of as different in different circumstances.
Nothing in Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism or Einstein's theory of relativity
makes this kind of prediction; these theories require physicists to insert
the number of dimensions "by both hands",
and this number is fixed and independent of potential energy.
String theory allows one to relate the number of dimensions to scalar potential energy.
Technically, this happens because a gauge anomaly exists
for every separate number of predicted dimensions, and the gauge anomaly can be counteracted by
including nontrivial potential energy into equations to solve motion.
Furthermore, the absence of potential energy in the "critical dimension" explains
why flat spacetime solutions are possible.
This can be better understood by noting that a photon included in a consistent theory
(technically, a particle carrying a force related to an unbrokengauge symmetry) must be massless.
The mass of the photon which is predicted by string theory
depends on the energy of the string mode which represents the photon.
This energy includes a contribution from the Casimir effect,
namely from quantum fluctuations in the string.
The size of this contribution depends on the number of dimensions
since for a larger number of dimensions; there are more possible fluctuations in the string position.
Therefore, the photon in flat spacetime will be massless
— and the theory consistent — only for a particular number of dimensions.
When the calculation is done,
the critical dimensionality is not four as one may expect (three axes of space and one of time).
The subset of X is equal to the relation of photon fluctuations in a linear dimension.
Flat space string theories are 26-dimensional in the bosonic case,
while superstring and M-theories turn out to involve 10 or 11 dimensions for flat solutions.
In bosonic string theories, the 26 dimensions come from the Polyakov equation.
Starting from any dimension greater than four,
it is necessary to consider how these are reduced to four dimensional spacetime.
Two different ways have been proposed to resolve this apparent contradiction.
The first is to compactify the extra dimensions; i.e., the 6 or 7 extra dimensions
are so small as to be undetectable by present day experiments.
To retain a high degree of supersymmetry,
these compactification spaces must be very special, as reflected in their holonomy.
A 6-dimensional manifold must have SU(3) structure,
a particular case (torsionless) of this being SU(3) holonomy,
making it a Calabi-Yau space, and a 7-dimensional manifold must have
G2 structure, with G2 holonomy again being a specific, simple, case.
Such spaces have been studied in attempts to relate string theory to
the 4-dimensional Standard Model, in part due to the computational simplicity
afforded by the assumption of supersymmetry.
More recently, progress has been made constructing
more realistic compactifications without the degree of symmetry of Calabi-Yau or G2 manifolds.
A standard analogy for this is to consider multidimensional space as a garden hose.
If the hose is viewed from a sufficient distance, it appears to have only one dimension, its length.
Indeed, think of a ball just small enough to enter the hose.
Throwing such a ball inside the hose, the ball would move more or less in one dimension;
in any experiment we make by throwing such balls in the hose,
the only important movement will be one-dimensional, that is, along the hose.
However, as one approaches the hose, one discovers that it contains a second dimension, its circumference.
Thus, an ant crawling inside it would move in two dimensions
(and a fly flying in it would move in three dimensions).
This "extra dimension" is only visible within a relatively close range to the hose,
or if one "throws in" small enough objects.
Similarly, the extra compact dimensions are only "visible"
at extremely small distances, or by experimenting with particles
with extremely small wavelengths (of the order of the compact dimension's radius),
which in quantum mechanics means very high energies (wave-particle duality).
Another possibility is that we are "stuck" in a 3+1 dimensional
(i.e. three spatial dimensions plus the time dimension) subspace of the full universe.
If such sub-spacetimes are exceptional sets within a larger-dimensional one,
there typically exist properly localized matter and Yang-Mills gauge fields.
These "exceptional sets" are ubiquitous in Calabi-Yau n-folds and
may be described as subspaces without local deformations,
akin to a crease in a sheet of paper or a crack in a crystal,
the neighborhood of which is markedly different from the exceptional subspace itself.
However, until the work of Randall and Sundrum,
it was not known that gravity too can be properly localized to a sub-spacetime;
their proof that it can made such cosmological scenarios realistic.
In addition, spacetime may well be stratified, containing strata of various dimensions
so that we may be inhabiting a 3+1 dimensional stratum;
such geometries occur naturally in Calabi-Yau compactifications.
Such sub-spacetimes are supposed to be D-branes,
hence such models are known as a brane-world theories.
Effect of the hidden dimensions
In either case, gravity acting in the hidden dimensions affects other non-gravitational forces
such as electromagnetism. In fact, Kaluza's early work demonstrated that general relativity
in five dimensions actually predicts the existence of electromagnetism.
However, because of the nature of Calabi-Yau manifolds,
no new forces appear from the small dimensions, but their shape has a profound effect on
how the forces between the strings appear in our four-dimensional universe.
In principle, therefore, it is possible to deduce the nature of those extra dimensions
by requiring consistency with thestandard model, but this is not yet a practical possibility.
It is also possible to extract information regarding the hidden dimensions
by precision tests of gravity, but so far these have only
put upper limitations on the size of such hidden dimensions.
In physics and mathematics, a sequence of N-numbers can be understood to
represent a location in an N-dimensional space.
Abstract five-dimensional space occurs frequently in mathematics, and is a legitimate construct.
Whether or not the real universe in which we live is somehow five-dimensional
is a topic that is debated and explored in several branches of physics,
including astrophysics and particle physics.
In physics, the fifth dimension is a hypothetical extra dimension
beyond the usual threespatial dimensions and one time dimension of Relativity.
The Kaluza-Klein theory used the fifth dimension to unify gravity with the electromagnetic force
When n = 7, the set of all such locations is called 7-dimensional Euclidean space.
Seven-dimensional elliptical and hyperbolic spaces are also studied,
with constant positive and negative curvature.
Abstract seven-dimensional space occurs frequently in mathematics,
and is a perfectly legitimate construct.
Whether or not the real universe in which we live is somehow seven-dimensional
(or indeed higher) is a topic that is debated and explored in several branches
of physics, including astrophysics and particle physics.
Formally, seven-dimensional Euclidean space is generated by considering
all real 7-tuples as 7-vectors in this space. As such it has the properties of
all Euclidian spaces, so it is linear,
has a metric and a full set of vector operations.
In particular the dot product between two 7-vectors is readily defined,
and can be used to calculate the metric. 7 × 7 matrices
can be used to describe transformations such as rotations which keep the origin fixed.
A distinctive property is that a cross product can be defined only in three or seven dimensions.
This is due to the existence of quaternions and octonions.
In mathematics, the seven-dimensional cross product is a bilinear operation
on vectorsin a seven-dimensional space.
It assigns to any two vectors a, b in ℝ7 a vector a × b ∈ ℝ7.
In seven dimensions there also exists a cross product involving six vectors
(that is, linear but not binary), discussed briefly in the section on generalizations.
A polytope in seven dimensions is called a 7-polytope.
The most studied are the regular polytopes, of which there are only three in seven dimensions.
A key feature of string theory is that, though it is an attempt to model our physical universe,
it takes place in a space with more dimensions than the four of spacetime
that we are familiar with. In particular a number of string theories take place
in a ten dimensional space, adding an extra six dimensions.
These extra dimensions are required by the theory,
but as they cannot be observed are thought to be quite different,
perhaps compactified so they form a six dimensional space
with a particular geometry too small to be observable.
In M-theory, which unifies the five types of string theory,
there is a seventh dimension involved.
In 1956, John Milnor constructed an exotic sphere in 7 dimensions and
showed that there are at least 7 differentiable structures on the 7-sphere.
The number is now known to be 28.
In differential topology, an exotic sphere is a differentiable manifold
that is homeomorphicbut not diffeomorphic to the standard Euclidean n-sphere.
The first exotic spheres were constructed by John Milnor (1956)
in dimension n = 7 as S3-bundles over S4.
He showed that there are at least 7 differentiable structures on the 7-sphere.
In any dimension Milnor (1959) showed that the diffeomorphism classes
of oriented exotic spheres form the non-trivial elements of an abelian monoid
under connected sum, which is a finiteabelian group if the dimension is not 4.
The classification of exotic spheres by Michel Kervaire and John Milnor (1963)
showed that the oriented exotic 7-spheres are the non-trivial elements
of a cyclic group of order 28 under the operation of connected sum.
Laws of the Universe
These laws are the foundation of order and growth in the entire universe.
All existing things are subject to these laws.
The Law of Perpetual Transmutation
The best definition of Natural Law seems to be that,
"it is the uniform and orderly method of the omnipotent God.
Unlike any other form of animal life that has been created,
we were given the power of choice or free will; along with this power came certain responsibilities.
The capacity to choose does not involve freedom from the consequence of our choice.
The laws or rules which govern every individual are as exact as the laws
which govern the material universe. We can act in accordance with these laws
or we can disregard them, but we cannot in any way alter them.
The law holds us to strict accountability, and there is not the slightest allowance made for ignorance.
The law of attraction will deliver to us what we do not want as quickly
and as certainly as it will deliver what we do want.
The Law of Relativity
In the study of this law, we find that all things are relative.
All laws are related to each other and correspond with each other.
The laws of the little are the laws of the great.
There is no big nor small, fast nor slow, except by comparison.
Every law that is a law must be relative to all other laws.
In other words, they must be in harmony, agreement and correspond with each other.
An understanding of this law will give one
the means of solving many of the secrets of nature that seem to be para-doxical.
The much discussed fourth dimension is nothing more nor less than
the dimension of vibration. All rates of vibration are either high or low,
only by comparison with those above or below them.
The Law of Vibration and Attraction
We live in an ocean of motion. We are always moving toward something and
it is always moving toward you... it's action and attraction.
This is where our intuitive factor is used. We can use it to pick up other people's vibrations.
When we consciously become aware of
vibrations, we call them feelings. When we feel bad, we can change
our feelings by thinking good thoughts. When we pick up a bad feeling from
another person we know they must be thinking disturbing thoughts.
We must not let their negative vibrations affect our way of thinking.
Our thoughts are vibrations that we send off into the universe.
When we concentrate the vibrations are stronger.
Our thoughts are cosmic waves of energy that penetrate
all time and space. Our thought controls the vibration our physical body is in.
Disease is a body that is not at ease. Health is a body at ease.
The Law of Polarity
Everything in the universe has its opposite. There would be no inside to a room without an outside.
If we referred to this side of the sheet of paper that these words are writen on
as the top, then the other side would be the bottom.
We have a right and left side to your body, a front and back.
Every up has a down and every down has an up.
The law of polarity not only states that everything has an opposite...
it is equal and opposite. If it was 3 feet from the floor up on to the table,
it would be 3 feet from the table down to the floor.
If it is 150 miles from LA to Vegas, by law it must be 150 miles from Vegas to LA;
It could not be any other way.
The Law of Rhythm
The law of rhythm embodies the truth that everything is moving to and from,
flowing in and out, swinging backward and forward. There is a high and a low tide.
Everything is flowing, both in and out, in accordance with the law.
There is always a reaction to every action.
Something must advance when anything retreats; Something must rise when anything sinks.
This law governs the movement of the planets in their orbits
and also manifests in the mineral and vegetable kingdoms.
Men and women can observe this law in their mental, physical and emotional states.
The law of rhythm is universal.
This can be observed in the rising and setting of the sun and moon,
ebb and flow of the tides, coming and going of the seasons,
and in the rhythmic swing of consciousness and unconsciousness.
The low feelings are what permit us to enjoy the high feelings.
Reason gives us the ability to choose our free will.
Even when we are on a natural down swing,
we can choose good thoughts with our free will and continue to move up.
The Law of Cause and Effect
Every cause has its effect; every effect, its cause.
There is no such thing as chance. Everything happens according to law.
Nothing in the entire universe ever happens, unless it occurs according to law.
Nothing ever escapes the law. It is impossible for the human mind to conceive of starting
a new chain of causation, for the simple reason that
every effect must have a cause; and in turn, that cause must have an effect.
Thus, we have the perpetual, never-ending cycle of cause and effect.
Ralph Emerson called the law of cause and effect, the law of laws.
People are very interested in results. Your physical health, your relationships,
the respect you earn, your material income. You must concentrate on the cause,
and the effect will automatically take care of itself. That is how the law works.
The Law of Gender
The law of gender manifests in all things as masculine and feminine.
It is this law that governs what we know as creation.
The word creation is often erroneously used, for, in reality, nothing is ever created.
All new things merely result from the changing of something that was, into something else that now is.
The law of gender manifests in the animal kingdom as sex.
It also manifests in the mineral and vegetable kingdoms.
Without the dual principle of male and female in all things,
there could not be a difference of potential, perpetuation of motion, nor a regeneration.
This law is the one which finally closes the cycle and
completes the circle of the seven subsidiary laws under one great law.
This is in truth, the creative law. This law decrees everything in nature is
both male and female. Both are required for life to exist.
This law also decrees that all seeds (ideas are spiritual seeds)
have a gestation or incubation period before they manifest.
In other words, when we build the image in your mind, a definate period of
time must elapse before that image manifests in physical results.